I don't suppose there is anyone still out there that reads this. But just in case I'm not dead. I've just been really busy.
New job at Deakin University - I'm a Research Fellow in Literacy Education
Hundreds of hours playing Nintendo DS, Playstation 2, and Xbox (and a few PC games also)
The blogs staying alive until I finish my PhD at least.
Global gaming networks are heterogenous collectives of localized practices, not unified commercial products. Shifting the analysis of digital games to local specificities that build and perform the global and general, Gaming Rhythms employs ethnographic work conducted in Venezuela and Australia to account for the material experiences of actual game players.
Monday, December 17, 2007
I don't suppose there is anyone still out there that reads this. But just in case I'm not dead. I've just been really busy.
Friday, April 20, 2007
Open Source Culture: Participatory Culture and the Digital Divide
Henry Jenkins’ recent publications on convergence have focused on the way that the active audience, equipped with the productive and distributive tools of digital technology might transform the waning public sphere in the
By focusing on the tactics of participation that are deployed in the global ‘South’ through a case study of media practices and consumption in Venezuela this article will demonstrate what is at stake in the shift to a media paradigm of convergence. In particular I will focus on the role that media piracy plays in providing a heterogeneous space of participation outside the news and telecommunications media, which have come under increasingly strict government controls since Hugo Chávez’s 2006 re-election.
To address this precarious participation in global media production, enabled through illegal practices that are disciplined by both local and global forces, I will turn to the work of Néstor García Canclini and George Yúdice on the uneven relationship between consumption and citizenship in order to contest dominant dialogues of piracy. Finally the article will re-examine piracy in the context of open source, in order to argue that to extend the consumer/citizen empowerment of convergence globally the notion of open source must be extended to include hardware, and education, as well as software.
Posted by Tom at 11:17 pm
Friday, April 13, 2007
Its time to get the rest of my PhD out of the way. No commitments for the next six weeks (apart from teaching), so I need to do some good solid writing.
The trip to CSU Dominguez Hills was cool, I still don't understand how I was there for 3 days and was gone from Audtralia for five. Time is confusing, especially when combined with space.
Interesting that no one that I spoke to in the USA has heard of Second Life, or even of America's Army.
Posted by Tom at 3:34 pm
Tuesday, April 03, 2007
(with Dr. Katarina Damjanov)
The Border Politics of Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games:
As a notion of place ‘the border’ has been deployed in a number of ways, of particular interest to this article is the way that ‘the border’ has been invoked as a shifting and immaterial boundary, and a metaphor for global mobility and hybridity. In this regard we wish to highlight two aspects of Pablo Vila’s (2000) work: his critique of a homogenous concept of ‘the border’; and his focus on uneven dynamics that borders impose.
The concept of the border will be used in this article to explore the exclusionary boundaries of massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), both in regard to access to the games, and of access within the games themselves. This investigation elaborates on the established uneven power dynamic in MMORPGs between the corporate owners of the game, and the players of the game. The aim of the article is to open up the category of players of MMORPGs to explore stratification within, and between, games that is derived from an unevenness of access.
The article will examine the ways that this unevenness stems from economics, technology, and culture through an ethnographic investigation of MMORPG play in Belgrade, Serbia, Melbourne, Australia, and Caracas, Venezuela. The discussion will focus on games popular at all sites: Tibia (CipSoft, 1996), Flyff (AeonSoft, 2004), and Second Life (Linden Labs, 2003). Through an analysis of this empirical data, the notion of the border in relation to MMORPGs will be explored, to argue while this genre of videogames represents a form of international space, that the inequalities and unevenness that characterize the demarcation of borders between states are carried through to the virtual game worlds, replicating and reproducing off-line hierarchies. Of particular interest will be the stakes and status of playing these games for free, vis-à-vis a system that allows people who are free-players and fee-paying subscribes to both play together and co-produce a virtual economy.
Vila, P. (2000). Crossing Borders, Reinforcing Borders: Social Categories, Metaphors, and Narrative Identities on the U.S.-Mexico Frontier. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Posted by Tom at 2:22 pm
Monday, April 02, 2007
I got another rejection letter from RMIT, this one was worded very kindly, thanking me for the effort I had made in applying. I had read their mission statement, and specifically addressed how I could help them achieve their mission.... anyway they wish me luck in my future career, which I can say without sarcasm is kind of them, because no one else has bothered to say that!
Still waiting for a rejection letter from Swinburne, I know that I didn't get the job because my colleague and buddy Christian McCrea got the job. Well done Christian!! Still haven't congratulated him in person, but Swinburne has made a smart move snapping him up.
As for me, I'm of to the USA for a job interview this week at California State University - Dominguez Hills, in the College of Liberal Arts, Department of Communication. Should be cool, definitely my biggest challenge yet.
Posted by Tom at 9:05 am
Sunday, March 11, 2007
I have my PhD completion seminar coming up this week. On Thursday afternoon, the panel will be Sean Cubitt, Umi Khattab and Nikos Papastergaidis. Not to sure about all the details right now, but I'm working towards a 25 minute presentation that includes a chapter summary, and addresses the objectives, methods, findings and significance of the research.
Posted by Tom at 12:16 pm
Sunday, March 04, 2007
I scored a gig with Christian (McCrea) and Darshana (Jayemanne) guest editing issue 13 of Refractory: A Journal of Entertainment Media. Which has to be ready for upload by August 1st (Ulp!!!).
Still figuring out the theme within the general topic (videogames of course).
Posted by Tom at 10:48 am
Saturday, March 03, 2007
What a week, lots of stuff happening. First, the Cultural Studies Review has asked me to review an article on videogames for them. Its just a small gig, but I hope a promise of things to come: (1) more refereeing for me (2) more articles on videogames in 'straight' journals. I also submitted an abstract for the fibreculture 'after convergence' issue, which was pretty rushed so I think has a pretty slender chance of getting accepted (but the awesome thing is, if it doesn't get accepted I don't have to write it). And I got my review of Henry Jenkins Convergence Culture in to Media International Australia (should be appearing in August). Then on friday I managed to get DiGRA in, its a substantially revised version of 'Everyday Empowerment', the paper that I presented on the 9/2 at Victoria University, it was submitted paper number 153 - only 50 papers will be accepted, so its very competitive. Great thing is its in Japan, so if I don't get accepted I don't have to figure out how to get there!
On top of that I started teaching at the University of Melbourne last week, and applied for two jobs, one at Swinburne University of Technology and one at RMIT University. The Swinburne one was for a position (level A) in the Games program, the RMIT job was in the Communications area, focusing on teaching the masters program. Also got a rejection letter from RMIT about the job I applied for in the games program there.
Posted by Tom at 12:56 pm
Tuesday, February 13, 2007
Of Sins, Vices and Pecados: The Cultural Context of Videogame Play
Using a case study of Grand Theft Auto 3: Vice City this paper will examine the cultural context of videogame consumption in Caracas, Venezuela in Summer 2005. Using data gathered through ethnographic fieldwork, participant observation and interviews over that period, this paper will examine the features of Vice City that made it the most often played single player game in Internet cafes. I will argue that in this case rather than any graphic or narrative elements that the game contained, it is the flexibility in terms of styles and approaches to play the game allowed that led to the game becoming a standard feature within Venezuelan gaming life. I will maintain that his is because it both catered to the requirements of the intense social space of the offline interactions within the Internet café, and superseded the limitations and difficulties imposed by the various social, economic and technological factors facing the game playing audience in Venezuela.
Posted by Tom at 1:06 pm
Friday, February 09, 2007
Hi Folks, I'm putting this one online for a while, until I can figure out what to do with it. Drop me a line if you want me to mail you a copy... the footnotes didn't come out...
A Situated Study of Caracas, Venezuela
In her groundbreaking book Playing with Power in Movies, Television, and Videogames: From Muppet Babies to Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (1991), Marsha Kinder maintains that the interactive nature of videogames gives children a sense of empowerment. A key caveat that she places on this sense of empowerment is that it is linked to acts of consumption, both within the game, and outside the game. Kinder locates this phenomenon of empowerment through the play and consumption of videogames in a global context. In this paper, I will re-evaluate Kinder’s claims in the light of the inequality of the power relations between the global videogame industry and their audience. In order to do this I will turn to the ethnographic data gained during fieldwork in Caracas, Venezuela from March through July 2005.
My intervention in Kinder’s argument takes the form of the following question: Can the interactivity of videogames be empowering in the developing world, in the same manner as they are in the wealthier countries of the ‘developed world’? This paper examines the ways in which game players’ that are otherwise excluded from consumptive practices due to lack of resources may nevertheless be empowered through game-play. Through a investigation of videogames in the context of the everyday lives of the players’ I will argue that empowerment in the context of Venezuela, is not so much linked to empowerment through consumption; but rather to empowerment through community, participation, and creativity.
Keywords: Global Media, Participatory Culture, Software Piracy, Videogame Industry
These youngsters on the street[s of Caracas], with their Nintendo dreams and Nike shoes, experience life in the larger context of global and transnational processes (1999, Márquez, p. 220).
Patricia Márquez in her book The Street Is My Home, a detailed ethnography of street and barrio children in Caracas, Venezuela, argues that the children in her study construct their identities in relation to various global and local media. The role of traditional media like Venezuelan music and telenovelas, is emphasized, along with the growing importance of transnational media forms, such as gangster rap, and important for the concerns of this paper, videogames. By drawing on fieldwork conducted between March and July of 2005, as a part of a larger project that examines the role that localized situations have on videogame consumption, and reception, this paper’s aim is to explore the significance of the ‘Nintendo dreams’ of Caracas’ youth. With this purpose in mind, I will first examine the notion of ‘participatory culture’; then I will use this notion to highlight the uneven surface of – and contradictory attitude towards – global participation, through an examination of the context of videogame play in Caracas.
Participatory culture is often evoked in order to mark the change from mass media notions of media reception, production and dissemination that is understood to be precipitated by the qualities which are associated with new or digital media. In the following discussion I would like to highlight a shift in how participatory culture has been conceptualized by contrasting the approach taken by Marsha Kinder in Playing with Power (1991), and Henry Jenkins in Convergence Culture (2006). In the fifteen years between the two publications the internet became the key object of discussion for scholars of participatory culture. While Kinder’s discussion predates the introduction of the term participatory culture, her concern is to examine the new subjectivities that were emerging through children’s engagement with interactive media. In this sense Kinder and Jenkins are engaging with the same phenomena, but on a sliding scale of cultural significance. Interactivity, ghettoized in videogames in 1991, is in Jenkins’ description of convergence culture now paradigmatic for the understanding of media, and media cultures.
In Kinder’s writing she regards the key innovation of videogames to be the choices and physical challenges posed by interactivity. This suggests a new form of empowerment, albeit one that is defined by consumption. At the game screen – which is not simply eyes looking at the screen, but also hands and fingers on controls and buttons – they are constructed as ‘consumerist subjects who can more readily assimilate and accommodate whatever objects they encounter’. For Kinder, videogames ‘help prepare young players for full participation in this new age of interactive multimedia – specifically, by linking interactivity with consumerism’ [my emphasis]. Kinder reads this link at the textual level, her study conducted with the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) version of Super Mario Bros: Mario Madness (1988) notes how empowerment – and transformation – within the game is always through consumption. In addition Kinder reads this trope linking interactivity with consumerism at a meta-level, where she recognizes videogames as heralding a new media aesthetic, that she dubs ‘transmedia intertextuality’, and an imbricated form of commodification, the ‘supersystem’. In this configuration, the consumption of one text leads to directly to another through deliberate intertextual linkages forming a contained media supersystem that crosses many media platforms. The Matrix (1999-2003) trilogy affords an excellent example of the supersystem, the three films containing deliberate lacunae that are filled in by other The Matrix® products, The Animatrix (2003) collection of anime, The Matrix Comics (2003), and the videogame Enter the Matrix (Shiny Entertainment, 2003). Space precludes elaborating this supersystem, which expands far beyond what I have described here.
P. David Marshall in his recent publication New Media Cultures (2004) reiterates the tension that Kinder has located between commodification and technological empowerment. Marshall regards the supersystem as a commercial usurpation and structuring of play that is: ‘designed to have a complete system of interaction for the audience with all forms of investment and engagement made possible and realizable’. This closed system of engagement envisioned by Marshall is the antithesis of the creativity and dynamism that is typically associated with ‘free play’. In fact, Alexander Galloway in Gaming: Essays on Algorithmic Culture (2006), recently argued that the interactivity that is so-valorized in discussions on videogames, is an allegory for what Deleuze in ‘Postscript on Control Society’ dubbed ‘the control society’, a shift from confinement in molds – Foucault’s disciplinary society – to confinement through modulation.
The imbrication of play and commerce follows Deleuze’s argument that in the society of control nothing is ever finished, that there is a breakdown of the discreet activities of the disciplinary society into coexisting unfinished and open, metastable states. I suggest that this means that the subjectivities produced through play, are not solely playful, experimental, or creative, but linked to, and imbricated in, a modulated system of controlled consumption. During my fieldwork in the cyber café Avila, I noticed one man, in his early twenties, whose ragged clothes and homemade tattoos, suggested association with malandro – a criminal underclass – subculture playing Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (2002), several times. Once I was caught by the owner of the café watching at this strange figure, slouched down in his chair, gazing intently at the screen where he was guiding Harry Potter through the game with subtle motions of the mouse. The owner remarked – without fear of being overheard because of the headphones the malandro was wearing – ‘this guy is crazy, this game is for children’. Although I never spoke with this Caraqueno I don’t understand his actions in this way. The ‘Nintendo dreams’ of the Caracas youth must be read in the context the breakdown between work and play, and also between the romanticized notion of the free and creative play of childhood and that of the empowerment of interactive consumption. While videogame play performs a liminal role in opening spaces of escape from the pressures of the everyday, it also allows the players to consume media culture on a global level.
In Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide (2006), Jenkins situates transmedia intextuality in a radically new form of media culture, which is characterized by the participatory power of the audience precipitated by digital networked technology. Behind this is a global system of co-operation between media industries through conglomeration, partnerships and licensing. Jenkins describes the participatory audience as ‘migratory’, in the sense that they will: ‘seek out new information and make connections among dispersed media content’. Jenkins emphasizes the audiences’ productive role and how this shapes and influences narrative arcs and genres by mobilizing their collective power. However, again this can be read in the context of the society of control; what occurs through the internet is a metastable modulation of the audience and the media producers. Fans’ productions are imitated by corporations as promotions; the participation is encouraged and organized into channels, and individuals productions become genres of, and assets within, the supersystem. Jenkins reads the phenomena in positive light and while I cannot say I share his enthusiasm, I suggest that the significance of the audience and media being in a state of metastable coexistence is the notion that media products are produced through a process of modulation that must simultaneously encapsulate the commercial imperative of the industry, the integrity of the intellectual property being developed, and the audiences’ expectation of participation.
Kinder is explicit in underscoring the global nature of the videogame phenomena, but specifically with reference to Japan. She suggests that the dominance of Nintendo in the USA’s videogame industry since the 1985 release of the NES foreshadowed the end of the dominance of USA owned companies in the entertainment industry. Jenkins’ also focuses on the USA. This is a problem, especially when we consider the stakes that Kinder and Jenkins place on participatory culture. Because if participation is equated to empowerment, then the inability to participate equally dis-empowering. In the gigantic mall of Sambil, the three shops selling videogames were mostly empty, but outside them often children would congregate, to watch the displays endlessly repeating the start sequence of Super Mario Sunshine (Nintendo, 2002), or FIFA Football 2005 (EA Canada, 2004). Reduced to watching an interactive media, these children were – at that moment at least – locked out of participatory culture, readers in a world increasingly defined by the interplay of reading and writing, observers in a media, and media paradigm characterized by action.
Global Videogames Industry
In order to explore the viability of participatory culture globally I will now examine the state of the global videogame industry. In Digital|Play: The Interaction of Technology, Culture, and Marketing (2003), Stephen Kline and his co-authors, locate a specific inequality that they describe as being a contradiction between ‘enclosure and access’ in the global patterns of consumption of videogames. This problem is manifest in three areas of the industry:
• The uneven global labor practices that locate the software industry in the ‘North’ – primarily Canada, Japan and the U.S.A., even Europe is relatively periphery –while the videogame consoles are generally produced in the maquiladoras of the ‘South’. In contrast, both the software and hardware are generally consumed in the ‘North’. The global industry is exclusionary in practice because hardware is material: videogames require expensive hardware, and potentially – for many contemporary games – a high-speed internet connection. This expense was felt heavily in Caracas, where even after the release of the Xbox 360, the original Xbox console was still selling for 800,000 Bolivars (480 Aus$), approximately a month’s salary for a newspaper journalist.
• The orthodox production cycle of commercial videogames mobilizes the audience in the production process, through beta testing. ‘patches’, and open source releases of game development tools. This breakdown between play and work, and the proprietary and legal issues that it raises has become something of a refrain in videogame scholarship. I suggest that this is an example of industry practices that are adjusting to capture the migratory audience, and harness their creative and productive power.
• This breakdown between consumer and producer is linked with the conflict between the software industry and pirates. Kline and his co-authors state that: ‘piracy is the shadow aspect of the interactive play industry’s own labor practices’. A substantial proportion of the global videogame piracy industry involves the black market software economy in countries of the ‘South’ that is a tactical response to global inequalities.
Deleuze points out that piracy is one of the few remaining dangers that remains to the control society, so the existence of a global media culture of pirated videogame play potentially challenges the global smoothness of that notion. In addition piracy plays an important role in equalizing global variances in the ability to take part in the comsumerist empowerment of participatory culture.
Piracy in Venezuela
Piracy was ubiquitously evident in my ethnographic research. On the streets, stalls selling pirated software, DVDs, playstation one games, and music CDs – not to mention bootleg publications of popular books – were common, especially in Libertador the municipal district of Caracas in which I made my investigation, which has a large area of barrios (shanty towns) and a predominently chavista local government (supporters of President Chávez). But even away from the streets, piracy was common. The videogames stores, empty of customers, kept a few dusty originals in glass cases, but my inquiries about games were met by the clerk producing either a folder or file of pirated games that were available from behind the counter, which if desired could be brought in from the back room. The clerks of the stores where I tried to buy pirated games were bemused and vague at the question of the location of the games origins: Chino or Asia was the standard reply. Only console games were available this way, computer games were so easily copied and cracked across ‘warez’ networks, that the transnational black market could gain no toehold in Venezuela.
The street-sellers – the homegrown entrepreneurial ‘hackers’ – of Caracas uniformly confessed to obtaining their games using file trading protocols, transnationally, either with strangers or in many cases acquaintances: relatives, friends, or partners – members of the post-Chávez middle-class diaspora that support folks back home by sending them software. Some businesses used a publish-to-order system, for example the innovative street hackers tu pana (Australian translation: your mate), running a business from home, downloading software, films and music to order, and delivering them anywhere in Caracas by motorbike. These combined methods were efficient, a new game being available readily on the street within 48 hours of its North American release was a standard that I witnessed many times, especially with much anticipated high profile releases like The Sims 2 (Maxis, 2004).
Interview subjects described to me how they would watch the game sellers carefully while they were walking on the street, in order to see if there was anything new which sparked their interest. With a cost of just 6000 Bolivars (4$ AUS) for most games, some players told me they would buy their own copies of the game even if they did not have a computer at home, so that they could ensure they could play a game that interested them. Taking it to the cyber café them selves and giving free copies to staff, to make sure that it ended up on the computers there. On the second or third day of my fieldwork, a café employee copied all of the games I had brought with me, all of which were historic strategy games in English that I had with me for a project I was working on. He then installed several of the games Medieval: Total War (Creative Assembly, 2002), Victoria: An Empire Under the Sun (Paradox Interactive, 2003), and Civilization II: Test of Time (1999), all of which were played sporadically by customers over the next five months. Other games would be installed and then just as quickly removed, as the café strove to keep up with consumer interest.
The media industries in Venezuela have been adversely affected, and are deeply critical of the lack of official response to the endemic piracy. The most critical anti-Chávez media outlets accuse the President of adopting a ‘bread and circuses’ approach to the poor masses in Caracas’ many barrios. Since Chávez’s presidency, the media has become a key site of contestation between the President and his opponents. In the first case this means that the content of media has become focused on political issues, either pro- or anti- chavista. However, beyond this it also means that the production of media itself has become an increasingly political act, which is subject to intense regulations and scrutiny by the government; primarily because the privately owned media is perceived as having global business concerns which compromise their coverage of the Revolucion Bolivariana. This has been the key motivation for the development of Telesur, a Pan-Latino network with links to al-Jeezera, widely perceived in the USA as being a propaganda tool for Chávez, that will be used to export the Revolucion Bolivariana across Latin-America. This was the also motivation behind the government’s recent refusal to renew the license for Radio Caracas Television that will expire this March.
This ideological conflict with the perceived USA-dominated global media and Chávez’s desire to make life easier for Venezuela’s millions of jobless barrio-dwellers has created a situation where piracy of global entertainment media is almost universally ignored, while media covering local issues are under severe restrictions. I suggest then that that stakes of videogame play in the context of participatory culture in Venezuela are dual:
1. Videogame piracy allows consumers to participate in a new, and global media culture;
2. Videogames are one of a few media that are outside the control and regulation of the state in Venezuela.
Thus I will conclude by suggesting that the Nintendo dreams of the ‘children’ of Venezuela have a political subtext that extends beyond the new form of empowered consumerism outlined by Kinder and Jenkins. Videogame play in this part of the globe is precarious in that it is caught between the global regulation of intellectual property and the local regulation of global media.
The Animatrix. (2003). Peter Chung, Andy Jones, Yoshiaki Kawajiri, Takeshi Koike, Mahiro Maeda, Kôji Morimoto, & Shinichirô Watanabe [Directors]. Village Roadshow Pictures, distributed by Warner Brothers.
Banks, J. (2003). Gamers as Co-creators: Enlisting the virtual audience – a report from the netface. In Virginia Nightengale & Karen Ross (Eds.). Critical Readings: Media and Audiences (pp. 268-278). Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Castronova, E. (2003). On Virtual Economies. Game Studies, 3(2). Retrieved 9 January, 2006, from http://www.gamestudies.org/0302/castronova/
Chávez to Shut Down Opposition TV. (2006, December 29). BBC News. Retrieved February 8, 2007, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/6215815.stm
Darley, A. (2000). Visual Digital Culture: Surface Play and Spectacle in New Media Genres. London: Routledge.
Deleuze, G. (1995). Negotiations 1972-1990 [Trans. M. Joughin]. New York: Columbia University Press.
Enter the Matrix. (2003). Shiney Entertainment, USA. Published in the USA by Atari and Warner Brothers Interactive.
Flew, T. (2005). New Media: An Introduction. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press [Second Edition].
Flew, T. & Humphreys, S. (2005) Games: Technology, Industry, Culture. In Terry Flew (Ed.). New Media: An Introduction (pp. 101-114). Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press [Second Edition].
Galloway, A. (2006). Gaming: Essays on Algorithmic Culture. Minneapolis; London: University of Minnesota Press.
Herz, J. C. (1997). Joystick Nation: How Videogames Ate Our Quarters, Won Our Hearts and Rewired Our Minds. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.
Humphreys, S. (2003). Online multi-user games: Playing for real. Australian Journal of Communication, 30(1), 79-91.
Humphreys, S. (2005). Productive Players: Online computer games’ challenge to traditional media forms. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 2(1), 37-51.
Humphreys, S., Fitzgerald, B., Banks, J., & Suzor, N. (2005). Fan-based production for computer games: User-led innovation, the ‘drift of value’ and intellectual property rights. Media International Australia, 114, 16-29.
Jansz & Martens. (2005). Gaming at a LAN event: the social context of playing video games. New Media & Society 7(?). 333-355.
Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York: New York University Press.
Jenkins, H. (2006). Fans, Bloggers, and Gamers: Exploring Participatory Culture. New York; London: New York University Press.
Kerr, A. (2006). The Business and Culture of Digital Games: Gamework/Gameplay. London; Thousand Oaks; New Delhi: Sage.
Kinder, M. (1991). Playing with Power in Movies, Television, and Videogames: From Muppet Babies to Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. Berkley: University of California.
Klang, M. (2004). Avatar: From deity to corporate property: A philosophical inquiry into digital property in online games. Information, Communication, and Society, 7(3), 389-402.
Kline, S., Dyer-Witheford, N., & Peuter, G. (2003). Digital|Play: The Interaction of Technology, Culture, and Marketing. Montréal: McGill-Queens University Press.
Lugo, J., Sampson, T., & Lossada, M. (2002). Latin America’s New Cultural Industries Still Play Old Games – From Banana Republic to Donkey Kong. Game Studies 2(2). Retrieved February 5, 2007, from http://www.gamestudies.org/0202/
Manovich, L. (2000). The Language of New Media. Cambridge; London: The MIT Press.
Márquez, P. C. (1999). The Street Is My Home: Youth and Violence in Caracas. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Marshall, P. D. (2004). New Media Cultures. London: Arnold.
The Matrix. (1999). Wachowski Bros. [Directors]. Warner Brothers.
The Matrix: Reloaded. (2003). Wachowski Bros. [Directors]. Warner Brothers/Village Roadshow Pictures.
The Matrix: Revolutions. (2003). Wachowski Bros. [Directors]. Warner Brothers/Village Roadshow Pictures.
Kücklich, J. (2005). Precarious Playbour: Modders and the Digital Games Industry. Fibreculture 5. Retrieved on 9 January, 2006, from http://journal.fibreculture.org/issue5/kucklich.html
Lastokwa, G. (2006). Law and Game Studies. Games and Culture, 1(1), 25-28.
Mazinger Z. (1972-1974). Toei Animation, Japan. Created by Go Nagai.
Mazinger Z Salva a Venezuela. (2002). Mediatech, Venezuela. Published in Venezuela by Mediatech.
Moore, C. (2005). Commonizing the enclosure: Online games and reforming intellectual property regimes. Australian Journal of Emerging Technology and Society, 3(2), 94-108.
Morris, S (2004a). Co-creative media: Online multiplayer computer game culture. Scan: Journal of Media Arts Culture, 1(1). Retrieved December 22, 2005 from http://scan.net.au/scan/journal/display.php?journal_id=16
Pearce, C. (2002). Emergent authorship: The next interactive revolution. Computers and Graphics, 26(1), 21-29.
Pearce, C. (2006). Productive Play: Game culture from the bottom up. Games and Culture, 1(1), 17-24.
Postigo, H. (2003). From Pong to Planet Quake: Post-Industrial transitions from leisure to work. Information, Communication, and Society, 6(4), 593-607.
Ruggill, J. E., McAllister, K. S., & Menchaca, D. (2004). Gamework. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 1(4), 297-312.
Super Mario Bros: Mario Madness. (1988). Nintendo, Japan. Published by Nintendo for the Nintendo entertainment System.
Takahasi, D. (2002). Opening the Xbox: Inside Microsoft’s Plan to launch an Entertainment Revolution. New York: Prima Lifestyles.
Tayor, T. L. & Kolko, B. E. (2003). Boundary Spaces: Majestic and the uncertain state of knowledge, community and self in the information age. Information, Communication, and Society, 6(4), 497-522.
Telesur and al-Jazeera Sign Deal. (2006, February 11). BBC News. Retrieved 17 January, 2007, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4669268.stm
Wachowski, L & Wachowski, A. (2003). The Matrix Comics. Brooklyn; London: Burlyman.
Yee, N. (2006). The Labour of Fun: How computer games blur the boundaries of work and play. Games and Culture, 1(1), 68-71.
Posted by Tom at 4:09 pm
Tuesday, January 16, 2007
- ► April (4)